Laser Scribed 3D Graphene Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries
Fan Zhang, Eman Alhajji, and Husam N. Alshareef
Materials Science and Engineering, KAUST, Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
•With the limited sources of Li and its high cost ($5000/ton), an alternative solution to Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is needed to meet the demand of energy storage.
•Na is abundant worldwide and inexpensive ($150/ton); hence, Na ion batteries (NIBs) are a good alternative.
•Although NIBs have lower energy density than LIBs, size is not an issue for home-based or grid-based energy storage.
•Graphite anodes work well for LIBs, but not for NIBs due to a larger ionic radius of Na (1.02 Å) compared to Li (0.76 Å); thus, a new form of carbon for NIB anodes is necessary.
•We report a new process that turns polymers into 3D graphene doped with nitrogen as an excellent anode for NIBs.
•The sample without nitrogen doping is referred to as LSG.
•The sample doped by urea without nitrogen gas protection during laser treatment is referred as NLSG-1.
•The sample doped by urea under with nitrogen gas protection during laser treatment is referred as NLSG-2.
• Laser scribed graphene with high nitrogen doping (12.85%) expands the graphene interlayer space, which in turn increases the Na ions insertion and battery capacity.
•Our optimized anodes show one of the best-obtained carbon anode performances to date for Na ion batteries: a reversible capacity of 425 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, and even 148 mAh g−1 at 10.0 A g−1 .