Contact Allergy to Acrylates and Methacrylates in Nail Artists in a Greek Population Sample
Background: Allergic Contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by acrylates, in artificial nail cosmetics is a major problem for nail artists. To analyze the frequency of the problem retrospective studies are necessary.
Methods: A retrospective study was performed, including nail artist patients with Contact Dermatitis (CD) submitted to our department from January 2012 to February 2017. Patients were clinically evaluated by a dermatologist whereas a short medical history was taken as well as the location of lesions was examined. A total of 95 patients, all females with mean age 32.75±8.07 years, have been tested for ACD. Patients’ occupation included nail artists (n=77, 81.05%), cosmetologists (n=11, 11.58%) and hair dressing professionals (n=7, 7.37 %). Lesions prevalence included upper extremities (98.95%), lower extremities (4.21%), face (3.16%) and trunk (4.21%). Patch testing was performed, according to the European Standard and additional series for acrylates and methacrylates.
Results: In Figure 1, we present a case of a female nail artist presented in our practice and disgnosed with upper extremities contact dermatitis (CD). Top five acrylate and methacrylate allergens included Ethyleneglycol Dimethacrylate (65.26%), Triethyleneglycol Dimethacrylate (26.32%), Diurethane Dimethacrylate (23.16%), Methyl Methacrylate (22.11%) and BIS-GMA (15.79%) (Figure 2). At the same time the top five allergens from the Standard Series were found to be Nickel Sulfate (51.58%), Fragrance Mix (18.75%), Thiomersal (15.79%), Cobalt Chloride (13.68%) and Balsam of Peru (9.47%) (Figure 3). The duration of CD has been estimated to be 11.2±11.23 months. Finally, 9.74% (n=9) of patients were found negative for all allergens included in the patch testing.
Conclusions: The present investigation has estimated the prevalence of ACD in female patients based on their professional profile. Our findings indicated that acrylates and methacrylates, are among the most potent allergens, a finding that agrees with other reports suggesting that acrylates and methacrylates as significant factors in ACD.