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Urolithiasis -What the urologist needs to know? How and what to report

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Urolithiasis – What the urologist needs to know? How and what to report.

Learning Objectives

- To analyze pros and cons of different imaging modalities
- To review types of urinary calculi and their imaging features
- To discuss anatomical variants, complex genitourinary anatomy and non-genitourinary
anatomical barriers
- To discuss the meaningfulness of how to report urolithiasis

Background
Urolithiasis is a common clinical disease. There are several risk factors for urolithiasis and multiple
types of stones. It is often responsible for severe pain, renal dysfunction and can be associated with
infection.
Many imaging modalities are used to study urolithiasis. Urinary stones can be classified according to
size, location, composition, aetiology and X-ray characteristics. Computed tomography can
determine stone burden, stone density, skin-to-stone distance and surrounding anatomy, which
affect the preferable treatment approach.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard procedure for large renal calculi removal, despite of
its morbidity.
Given the pivotal role of imaging in the choice of urinary stone treatment approaches, the Radiologist
can be very helpful in this process, assisting in the decision of the treatment modality and alerting
urologists to possible difficulties during the procedure and post procedure complications.

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