Long-term Results from the Avalon Study – Feedback-Controlled SCS using Evoked Compound Action Potentials
Marc Russo1, Lawrence Poree2, Michael J Cousins3,4, Charles Brooker3, Richard Sullivan5, Tillman Boesel6, Nathan Taylor3,4, Rebecca Martin3,4, Martine O’Niell3,4, John L Parker7
1 Genesis Research Services, Newcastle, Australia; 2 University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States; 3 MJC Pain Management and Research Center, Sydney, Australia; 4 Northern Private Pain Center, Sydney, Australia; 5 Precision Brain, Spine and Pain Centre, Melbourne, Australia; 6 Inner West Pain Centre, Sydney, Australia; 7 Saluda Medical, Sydney, Australia.
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an established intervention for the treatment of chronic pain. Currently-marketed SCS systems operate in an open-loop configuration: stimulation is set to a fixed-output and delivered to the neural target without sensing or adjusting to the nerves’ response. A new SCS system uses evoked compound action potential (ECAP) recordings in a real-time closed-loop feedback algorithm that automatically adjusts stimulation intensity to maintain amplitude within a therapeutic window. The effectiveness of this system for pain relief and other outcomes was investigated.